Journal of Development Innovations https://www.karmaquest.org/journal/index.php/journal <p>The Journal of Development Innovations (JDI) is a double blind peer-reviewed international journal dedicated to promote innovative and creative ideas in the field of economic development, growth, and sustainability. The journal accepts articles from any field that relates to economic development and growth, spanning, for example, from environment and climate change to science and engineering. The journal is published online twice in a year by KarmaQuest International.</p> <p>The KarmaQuest International conducts research in its Innovation Lab whereas it applies the innovative ideas on the ground through its Impact Lab. Journal of Development Innovations is published under its Innovation Lab. Authors are requested to submit their innovative contributions so we can impact the world together in a positive way.</p> KarmaQuest International en-US Journal of Development Innovations 2371-9540 Ex-ante Moral Hazard: Evidence from the Behavioral Risk Factor and Surveillance System Dataset https://www.karmaquest.org/journal/index.php/journal/article/view/59 <p>Ex-ante moral hazard may induce individuals with health insurance to engage in riskier behaviors than they would without insurance. This paper uses data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2011- 2018) to identify the existence of the ex-ante moral hazard. We estimate the effects of health insurance on four lifestyle choices: overweight, obesity, smoking, and sedentary using a multivariate probit model. The results show that having insurance is associated with a higher probability of a sedentary lifestyle. Health insurance also increases the probability of being overweight. However, health insurance has no significant incentive effect on being obese implying that people are not obese because of health insurance. The findings also show that health insurance is associated with a decrease in the probability of smoking. This indicates the existence of potential ex-ante moral hazard in two lifestyle choices, sedentary lifestyle and overweight, but not in obesity and smoking.</p> Rajendra Dulal Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 6 1 1 15 An Overview on Geology, Tectonic Framework and Geo-Hazards in the Nepal Himalaya https://www.karmaquest.org/journal/index.php/journal/article/view/60 <p>The article summarizes up-to-date information on the geology, tectonics evolution, structural setup and an overall account of the geo-hazards that frequently impact the Nepal Himalaya. The Himalayan belt terminates at the Brahmaputra River in the east and the Indus River in the west, forming syntaxial bands at both ends. Its evolution perceivably synchronised with the northward drifting Indian continent that collided with the relatively passive Eurasian continent during 40 - 55 Ma and gave rise to the Himalayan mountain range and the Tibetan plateau. The timing of collision is considered with the marine transgression of the Subathu Formation of Palaeocene to Lower Eocene age and complete withdrawal and cessation of marine sedimentation of the Tethyan basin in Post-Mid Eocene time. In this process, frontal northern margin of the Indian plate was deformed due to drastic collision and under-thrusting of the Indian craton with Lhasa block of Tibet, giving rise to north-dipping major thrusts, laterally yielding the Tibetan Tethys, Higher Himalaya, Lesser Himalaya, Sub-Himalaya and Indo- Gangetic plain. Nappe, klippe, and active faults played major role in the geo-dynamics of the Himalayan region. MCT, MBT and MFT come off together in a low-angle decollement and comprise as MHT. The cumulative effects of natural and anthropogenic hazards adversely impact the environment and ecosystems, besides causing immense economic loss.</p> Krishna P. Kaphle Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 6 1 16 43 Mapping of Geological Sensitive Areas along the Budhi Khola Watershed, Sunsari/Morang Districts, Eastern Nepal Himalaya https://www.karmaquest.org/journal/index.php/journal/article/view/61 <p>The geological sensitivity mapping was carried out in the Budhi Khola watershed, eastern Nepal covering about 140 Km<sup>2</sup> areas from its origin to flat land of the Bhabar region. The study was aimed to assess the geological sensitive areas which are vulnerable to human life, properties, and environment. The objectives of the study were set to find the geo-hazards within the watershed area, to pick out their root causes and social impacts. To determine the geological sensitivity zones, an extensive field investigation was carried out to collect the relevant data. Geological sensitivity map was prepared in 1:25,000 scale including all the adverse geological processes occurring within the watershed. The major geo-hazard zones in this watershed are due to activity of active fault, extreme floods with debris flows, active landslides, active riverbank cuttings, haphazard mining of construction materials from the recent flood plains and over-pumping of groundwater. These adverse activities have direct impacts on human communities and environment. The map can be used to predict the possibilities of geo-disasters. It can also be used for land use planning and infrastructural developments in the region. Finally, mitigation measures are recommended to protect the watershed from geological hazards and to build disaster resilient community.</p> Kabi Raj Paudyal Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 6 1 44 68 Do Remittances Improve Nutritional Take-Up? Analysis of Child Nutrition in Nepal https://www.karmaquest.org/journal/index.php/journal/article/view/63 <p>Nepal is one of the major recipients of remittance in terms of its ratio to Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The remittances received by Nepalese households have been used primarily for the consumption purpose. This article deliberates on whether these remittances are used to improve the nutritional status of the children. The paper examines the effect of remittance on the nutritional scores – HAZ, WAZ, and WHZ – as well as on the stunting, underweight, and wasting of children below five years of age by using the data from NLSS III 2010/11. The Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) estimates suggest that there is a positive association of migrant remittance on stunting and underweight of children. The paper further highlights the role that migrant remittance has played in improving the living standard of Nepalese people.</p> Ramesh Dulal Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 6 1 69 94