Hot Water Springs (Thermal Springs) in Nepal: A Review on their Location, Origin, and Importance

Santa Man Rai, Tara Nidhi Bhattarai, Durga Khatiwada


Hot spring is a natural source of hot water that gets heated by the geothermal gradient beneath the earth and ultimately rises up to the earth’s surface through the fissures or fractures of the rocks. In Nepal, hot springs are mostly originated in the area of geologically active tectonic belts (major faults): the Main Central Thrust (MCT), the Ramgarh Thrust (RT) and the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT). Spa and wellness tourism (leisure and recreation) and health and medical tourism (thermalism, balneology, and hydrotherapy) are likely to play an important role to boost the local economy leading to sustainable development of the communities. Mostly domestic and international tourists have been using the hot spring water for the treatment of different diseases/physical problems besides the relaxation, recreation and leisure. It can also be considered as an optional renewable energy for the production of the hydroelectricity in some places. Based on literature reviews, this paper highlights the ongoing researches on the origin and geochemistry of the hot spring and pinpoints the research gap to be conducted. It also discusses how the hot springs could be used effectively in the favour of local communities maintaining physical environment and cultural harmony of the area.

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