Hot Water Springs (Thermal Springs) in Nepal: A Review on their Location, Origin, and Importance

Santa Man Rai, Tara Nidhi Bhattarai, Durga Khatiwada

Abstract


Hot spring is a natural source of hot water that gets heated by the geothermal gradient beneath the earth and ultimately rises up to the earth’s surface through the fissures or fractures of the rocks. In Nepal, hot springs are mostly originated in the area of geologically active tectonic belts (major faults): the Main Central Thrust (MCT), the Ramgarh Thrust (RT) and the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT). Spa and wellness tourism (leisure and recreation) and health and medical tourism (thermalism, balneology, and hydrotherapy) are likely to play an important role to boost the local economy leading to sustainable development of the communities. Mostly domestic and international tourists have been using the hot spring water for the treatment of different diseases/physical problems besides the relaxation, recreation and leisure. It can also be considered as an optional renewable energy for the production of the hydroelectricity in some places. Based on literature reviews, this paper highlights the ongoing researches on the origin and geochemistry of the hot spring and pinpoints the research gap to be conducted. It also discusses how the hot springs could be used effectively in the favour of local communities maintaining physical environment and cultural harmony of the area.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Alam, M. A., & Chandrasekharam, D. (2004). Geothermal Nepal: Prospects, implements and solutions. Abstract, Jour. Nepal Geol. Soc., 30, 22-23.

Becker, J. A., Bickle, M. J., Galy, A., & Holland, T. J. B. (2008). Himalayan metamorphic CO2 fluxes: quantitative constraints from hydrothermal springs. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 265, 616–629.

Bhattarai, D. R. (1980). Some geothermal springs of Nepal. Tectonophysics, 62 (1-2), 7-11.

Carosi, R., Montomoli, C., Iaccarino, S., Cottle, J., Tartaglia, G., Dal Paos, L., & Visonà, D. (2017). The Higher Himalayan Discontinuity in the Marshyangdi valley, central Nepal. Congresso congiunto SIMP-SGI-GOGEI-AIV Abstract Book. http://dx.doi.org/10. 3301/ABSGI/2017.01.

Cattin, R., Martelet, G., Henry, P., Avouce, J. P., Diament, M., & Shakya, T. R. (2001). Gravity anamolies, crustal structure, and thermomechanical support of the Himalaya of Central Nepal. Jour. Geophysics Res., 147, 381-392.

Colchen, M. (1999). The Thakkhola-Mustang Graben in Nepal and the late Cenozoic extension in the Higher Himalayas; Geology of the Nepal Himalaya; recent advances. Journal Asian Earth Sci., 17, 683-702.

Copeland, P., Harrison, T. M., Hodges, K. V., Maruéjol, P., Le Fort, P., & Pêcher, A. (1991). An Early thermal disturbance of the Main Central Thrust, central Nepal. Jour. Geophysics Res., 96, 8475-8500.

Das, S., Sherpa, M. T., Sachdeva, S., & Thakur, N. (2012). Hot springs of Sikkim (Tatopani): A socio-medical conjuncture which amalgamates religion faith traditional belief and tourism. Asian Academic Res. Jour. Social Science and Humanities, 4(1), 80-93.

DeCelles, P. G., Gehrels, G. E., Quade, J., Ojha, T. P., Kapp, P. A., & Upreti, B. N. (1998). Neogene foreland basin deposits, erosional unroofing, and the kinematic history of the Himalayan fold thrust belt, western Nepal. Geol. Soc. America Bull., 110(10), 2-21.

Derry, L. A., Evans, M. J., Darling, R., & France-Lanord, C. (2009). Hydrothermal heat flow near the Main Central Thrust, central Nepal Himalaya. Earth Planetary Sci. Lett., 286, 101–109.

Economic Survey 2019/2020, Government of Nepal (2020). Economic Survey: Ministry of Finance, Government of Nepal (2020), 144p.

Edwards, R. M. (1995). 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the Main Central Thrust (MCT) region: Evidence for late Miocene to Pliocene disturbances along the MCT, Marsyandi River valley, west-central Nepal Himalaya. Jour. Nepal Geol. Soc., 10, 41-46.

Erfurt-Cooper, P. (2010). The Importance of Natural Geothermal Resources in Tourism. Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2010, Bali, Indonesia, 1-10.

Erfurt-Cooper, P. (2011). An Assessment of the role of natural hot and mineral springs in health, wellness and recreational tourism. Ph. D. Thesis, School of Business, James Cook University, Cairns, Old 4870, 368p.

Evans, M. J., Derry, L. A., Anderson, S. P., & France-Lanord, C. (2001). Hydrothermal source of radiogenic Sr to Himalayan rivers. Geological Soc. America, 29(9), 803–806.

Evans, M. J., Derry, L. A., & France-Lanord, C. (2004). Geothermal fluxes of alkalinity in the Narayani river system of central Nepal. AGU and the Geochemical Soc., 5(8), 1-21.

Gansser, A. (1964). In: Geology of the Himalaya. Wiley Interscience. London, 289p.

Girault, F., Koirala, B. P., Perrier, F., Richon, P., & Rajaure, S. (2009). Persistance of radon-222 flux monsoon at geothermal zone in Nepal. Jour. Environ. Radioactivity, 100, 955-964.

Grabczak, J., & Kotarba, M. (1985). Isotopic composition of the thermal waters in the central part of the Nepal Himalayas. Geothermics, 14, 567–576.

Hamzah, Z., Rani, N. L. A., Saat, A., and Wood, A. K. (2013). Determination of hot springs physico-chemical water quality potentially use for balneotherapy. Malaysian Jour. Analytical Sciences, 17 (3), 436-444.

IRDS (2003). Feasibility study of geothermal energy application in Nepal. Unpublished report, 11-12.

Jnawali, B. M. (2004). Exploration status and potential utilization of geothermal resources in Nepal. Jour. Nepal Geol. Soc., 26, 17-27.

Kandel, H. P. (2007). Geology, geochemistry and medical values of Singha Tatopani and Bhurung Tatopani Tatopani, Myagdi, western Nepal. M. Sc. Thesis, Central Department of Geology, TU, 69p.

Kotarba, M., Sokolowski, A., & Bogacz, W. (1981). Hydrogeological investigations in the Kali Gandaki thermal springs area (Nepal Himalayas). Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci. Earth Sci., 29, 283–291.

Kotarba, M. (1985). Mixing models and chemical geothermometers applied to the estimation and geothermal potential of Kali Gandaki and Seti Khola thermal spring areas (Nepal Himalayas). Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci. Earth Sci., 33, 131–138.

Lapidus, D. F. (1990). Collins Dictionary of Geology, Collins, London, 565p.

Law, R. D., Searle, M. P., & Simpson, R. L. (2004). Strain, deformation temperatures and vorticity of flow at the top of the Greater Himalayan slab, Everest massif, Tibet. Jour. Geol. Soc. London, 161, 305–320.

Macfarlane, A. M., Hodges, K. V., & Lux, D. (1992). A structural analysis of the Main Central Thrust Zone, Langtang National Park, central Nepal Himalaya. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 104, 1389-1402.

Macfarlane, A. M. (1993). The chronology of tectonic events in the crystalline core of the Himalaya, Langtang National Park, central Nepal. Tectonics, 12, 1004-1025.

Molnar, P., & Tapponnier, P. (1975). Cenozoic tectonics of Asia: effects of a continental collision. Science, 89, 419-426.

Patriat, P., & Achache, J. (1984). India-Eurasia collision chronology has implications for crustal shortening and driving mechanisms of plates. Nature, 311, 615-621.

Perrier, F., Chitrakar, G. R., Thierry, F., Tiwari, D., Gautam, U., Kafle, B., & Michael, T. (2002). Estimating streaming potentials associated with geothermal circulations at the Main Central Thrust: an example from Tatopani-Kodari hot spring in central Nepal. Jour. Nepal Geol. Soc., 26, 17-27.

Perrier, F., Richon, P., Byrdina, S., France-Lanord, C., Rajaure, S., Koirala, B. P., Shrestha, P. L., Gautam, U. P., Tiwari, D. R., Revil, A., Bollinger, L., Contraires. S., Bureau, S., & Sapkota, S. N. (2009). A direct evidence for high carbon dioxide and radon-222 discharge in Central Nepal. Earth Planetary Sci. Lett., 278, 198-207.

Rai, S. M. (2011). Hot springs in Nepal. Bull. Nepal Geol. Soc., 28, 69-72.

Ranjit, M. (1994). Geochecmial studies in some thermal springs of Nepal.

The United Nation University. The United Nations Geothermal Training Program, Orkustofnun, Grensasvegur 9, Iceland, Report 11, 267-290.

Ranjit, M. (2000). Geothermal Energy Update of Nepal. Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2000, Japan, 387-395.

Ranjit, M. (2005). Geothermal Energy Update of Nepal. Proceedings World Geothermal Congress, Turkey.

Ranjit, M. (2015). Geothermal Energy Update of Nepal. Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2015, Melbourne, Australia, 1-10.

Raza, H. A., Alam, S., Uddin, M. N., & Pervaz, M. (2011). Study on geothermal resources of South Asia. Published by SAARC Energy Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan, Report, 189p.

Shrestha, S. (2016). Getting tourism out of hot water. Nepali Times, issue 13-19 May 2016, retrieved from https://archive.nepalitimes.com/article/nation/getting-tourism-out-of-hot-waters-nepal, 3030.

Sterns, N. D., Stearns, H. T., & Waring, G. A., (1937). Thermal springs in the United States. USGS water supply, 679.

Upreti, B. N. & Le Fort, P. (1999). Lesser Himalayan crystalline nappes of Nepal: problems of their origin. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., Spec. 328, 225-238.

Vaidya, B. & Nakarmi, S. (2020). A Qualitative Study of Patients’ Beliefs and Perception on Medicinal Properties of Natural Hot Spring Bath for Musculoskeletal Problems. Jour. Environmental and Public Health, 1-5.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Santa Man Rai, Tara Nidhi Bhattarai, Tara Nidhi Bhattarai

Journal of Development Innovations

ISSN 2371-9540

Copyright © KarmaQuest International