A Brief Review of the United Nations and Global Governance

Ramesh Shrestha


The United Nations (UN), created in 1945, has done its best to maintain peace and security in the world. It has issued numerous binding and non-binding resolutions on all aspects of our society ranging from basic education to nuclear non-proliferation for betterment of the global community. It assists countries in economic development and provides humanitarian reliefs during times of disasters. There are new and upcoming issues such as biotechnology, info-technology, and more recently COVID-19 pandemic. The issue of vaccine inequity glaringly presented us with an urgent need for a global governance acceptable to all, not in the form of a world government, but a system of governance not to control but to avoid harmful consequences of human activities. The world needs a global framework for development not just for peace and security. While the UN created under a very different geopolitical situation described by some as irrelevant but there is no alternative to replace it. The question for global statesmen, academics and scientists is how best to restructure the United Nations to make it more effective and efficient and help everyone on path to development without destruction.

Full Text:



Aarhus University (2021). The Invention of International Bureaucracy, The Island Question - A League Success Story, Written by Eric Hays (EU Ambassador to Finland 1993-95). Aarhus University, Denmark 2021.

Alston, P. (2005). The not so happy state of art, in Labour Rights as Human Rights (ed. Alston, P., Oxford University Press, 2005).

Bennett, A. L. (1995). Collective security and its alternatives, Chapter 2, Theory and practice in International Organisations: Principles and Issues, Prentice Hall, New Jersey.

Boysen, J. (2014). Polish-German border conflict, International Encyclopedia of the First World War, 1914-1918 Online, Version 1, updated 8 October 2014. Retrieved from: https://encyclopedia.1914-1918-online.net/article/polish-german_border_conflict

British Broadcasting Services (BBC) (2013). Charles Taylor war crimes convictions upheld, BBC News Bulletin, London, 26 Sept 2013. Retrieved from: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-24279323

Bugnion, F. (2003). The International Committee of Red Cross and the Protection of the War Victims. ICRC, Macmillan, Oxford, 2003, 1140p.

ECOCOS oversight (2005). What does ECOSOC do? Retrieved from: https://www.un.org/en/ecosoc/meetings/2005/hl2005/ECOSOCinfo%20rev%20et.pdf

Hsien-Li, T. (2011). Charting the human rights institutionalisation process in Southeast Asia, Chapter 1 in The ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights: Institutionalising Human Rights in Southeast Asia. Cambridge University Press. United Kingdom, 308p.

Human Rights Watch (2006). Weighing the evidence: lessons from the Slobodan Milosevic trial, Human Rights Watch, 13 December 2006. Retrieved from: https://www.hrw.org/report/2006/12/13/weighing-evidence/lessons-slobodan-milosevic-trial

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) (2018). Learning to Realise Education Promise, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/ The World Bank, Washington 2018, 239p.

International Committee of Red Cross (ICRC) (1963). History of the International Committee of the Red Cross, V. 1: from Solferino to Tsushima, Ref. 2041, Henry Dunant Institute Geneva, 1963.

International Committee of Red Cross (ICRC) (2019). International Humanitarian Law: A comprehensive introduction, ICRC, Geneva, 356p.

International Labour Office (ILO) (1920). The Labour Provisions of the Peace Treaties, Geneva 1920. 18p.

International Labour Organisation (ILO) (2013). World of Work Report 2013: Repairing the Economic and Social Fabric, International Labour Organisation, International Institute of Labour Studies, Geneva, 2013, 133p.

Jackson, R. (2005). International engagement in war-torn countries, chapter 9 in The Politics of Global Governance: International Organisations in an Interdependent World (ed. Diehl Paul, F.), Lynne Rienner Publishers, Boulder 2005, 515p.

Kennedy, P. (2006). The Parliament of Man: The Past, Present, and Future of the United Nations Vintage Books, A division of Random House, New York, 361p.

League of Nations (2020). Retrieved from: https://www.history.com/topics/world-war-i/league-of-nations

Machel, G. (2001). Child Soldiers, Chaptervc2, in The Impact on War on Children. Hurst & Company, London. 230p.

Morrison, A. B. (1985). Commentary: The World Health Organisation and ‘Health for All’, Health Affairs, 4(1).

New York Times (1971). People’s Republic of China In, Taiwan Out, at U.N., New York Times, Oct. 25, 1071. Retrieved from: https://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/10/25/oct-25-1971-peoples-republic-of-china-in-taiwan-out-at-un/

Tauche, K. (2019). Global postal group reaches a deal to avoid US withdrawal. CNBC News. Retrieved from: https://www.cnbc.com/2019/09/25/postal-compromise-close-as-us-pushes-global-mail-reforms-amazon-fedex-impact.html

Time Magazine (1927). The League of Nations: Poland V. Lithuania, TIME Dec 12, 1927. Retrieved from: http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,737062,00.html

UNESCO (1990). World Declaration on Education for All and Framework for Action to Meet Basic Learning Needs, Adopted by the World Conference on Education for All Meeting Basic Learning Needs, Jomtien, Thailand, 1990. 37p.

UNESCO (2019). UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Fact Sheet no. 56, September 2019, UIS/2019/ED/FS/56, Paris, 2019, Retrieved from: http://uis.unesco.org/sites/default/files/documents/new-methodology-shows-258-million-children-adolescents-and-youth-are-out-school.pdf

UNICEF (2018). Goal area 2, Every child learns, United Nations Children’s Fund, New York 2018. 107p.

UNICEF (2018). 27 million children out of school in conflict zones – UNICEF.

United Nations (1993). Charter of the United Nations and Statute of the International Court of Justice, United Nations, New York 1993. 108p.

United Nations (1994). A compilation of International Instruments, Vol. 1 (First Part), United Nations, Geneva 1994. 418p.

United Nations (2000). Basic facts about the United Nations, Chapter 1, United Nations, New York, 2000, 345p.

United Nations Dag Hammarskjold Library (2021). Security Council – Quick Links, Veto list, 2021. Accessed from: https://research.un.org/en/docs/sc/quick

UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Retrieved from: UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (ubc.ca)

The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Canada (UNHCR, Canada, 2021). United Nations. Retrieved from https://give.unhcr.ca/page/52275/donate/1?ea.tracking.id=SEM21_UNR&utm_campaign=CA_PS_EN_general&gclid=CjwKCAiAzrWOBhBjEiwAq85QZx_6CExW8uHywKpJSMJ_V6QkVzXBt_SN4dXoM0PgKQwKZ-QOn9iRMxoClw8QAvD_BwE&gclsrc=aw.ds

United Nations Peacekeeping (2021a) Past peacekeeping operations, United Nations 2021. Retrieved from: https://peacekeeping.un.org/en/past-peacekeeping-operations

United Nations Peacekeeping (2021b). Where we Operate, United Nations, New York, 2021. Retrieved from: https://peacekeeping.un.org/en/where-we-operate

World Bank Education Expenditure. Retried from: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Worldometer Live Data (2021). Worldometer Live Data based on projection by the United Nations Department of Population, United Nations, New York. Retrieved from: https://www.worldometers.info/world-population/population-by-country/


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Ramesh Shrestha

Journal of Development Innovations

ISSN 2371-9540

Copyright © KarmaQuest International